Skip to main content

Five Most Extreme Hydrologic Events that changed the World

Typhoon Tip, Philipines(Collected from : CSMonitor)

Devastating storms, severe flood, acute famine conditions, etc. hydrological events of extreme nature has changed human history. Any event which is not normal is known as an abnormal event. In the case of hydrology, an event that has a return period of more than 100 years is considered Extreme.

According to Herring(2020) of, "An extreme event is a time and place in which weather, climate, or environmental conditions—such as temperature, precipitation, drought, or flooding—rank above a threshold value near the upper or lower ends of the range of historical measurements."

Though the threshold is not objective, few researchers have defined "extreme events as those that occur in the highest or lowest 5% or 10% of historical measurements". Some have described events by their deviation from the mean, or by their occurrence interval.  

Here the most severe five extreme hydrologic events were discussed which has changed the pathway of human history after the occurrence of these events. The impact of such events was experienced many decades after the event has occurred.

How have I  selected the events?

At the time of selection, we have considered the death toll due to the event, return period, and impact on the future generation as the criteria. The decision-making tool "ODM" was used to find and sort the events as per their severity and placed them below:

1) Typhoon Tip, Philippines

 The strongest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, as measured by minimum central pressure, was Typhoon Tip, which reached a pressure of 870 hPa (25.69 inHg) on October 12, 1979.

 2) 1999 Odisha cyclone. India

The 1999 Odisha cyclone (IMD designation BOB 06,[1] JTWC designation 05B[3]) was the most intense recorded tropical cyclone in the North Indian Ocean and among the most destructive in the region which occurred on 29th October 1999 when the winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) and a record-low pressure of 912 mbar (hPa; 26.93 inHg) was observed in the Bhubaneswar and various places in Odissa. The storms dissipated on 4 November over the Bay of Bengal. Not only Bhubaneswar, but a complete breakdown of essential services was also observed in Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Keonjhar, Kendrapara, Khurda, Puri, Mayurbhanj, and Nayagarh. The entire green cover of the Bhubaneswar city was destroyed in one night. In total, 12.9 million people were affected by the storm; and around 9,887(approx) were killed

3) 1931 China floods

The 1931 China floods, or the 1931 Yangtze–Huai River floods, were a series of floods that occurred from June to August 1931 in China, hitting major cities such as Wuhan, Nanjing, and beyond, which eventually culminated into a dike breach along Lake Gaoyou on 25 August 1931.

4) 1987, the Bihar Flood, India

In 1987, the Bihar state of India witnessed one of its worst floods till then. The flood occurred due to the overflow of the Koshi river; which claimed the lives of 1,399 humans, 302 animals and public property worth INR ₹68 billion (US$900 million). After this flood Koshi changed his flow path.

5) Drought in China and India 1876-79

The most severe drought was in northern China in 1876-79, when between 9 and 13 million people are estimated to have died after the rains failed for three consecutive years. At around the same time (1876-78), approximately 5 million Indians died when the monsoon failed in successive years.

Signing off

Founding and Honorary Editor HydroData 
Subscribe to Newsletter

Promoted Products: 
Publish your book with EIS Publishers
 "Ashwagandha and Other Products for Enhancing Immunity".. Nutrilite(Use 13238584 as ABO ID)
Procure Hydrology Themed T-Shirts from Innovate S

Popular posts from this blog

Introduction to Glowworm Optimization Algorithm

Overview of the Glow Worm Algorithm Explanation of the original Glow Worm Algorithm  The Hybrid Glow Worm Algorithm is an important algorithm to study and understand because of its ability to effectively solve complex optimization problems. By combining the strengths of different algorithms, it offers a flexible and adaptable solution approach that can be applied to various domains. Understanding this algorithm can help researchers and practitioners in developing efficient and effective optimization strategies for their specific problem instances.  The original Glow Worm Algorithm is a swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of glow worms in nature. It involves a population of virtual glow worms that interact with each other and their environment to find optimal solutions.  The algorithm uses a combination of local and global search strategies, allowing the glow worms to explore and exploit the search space effectively. Additionally, the algorithm incor

Very Short Term Course on Multi Attribute Utility Theory and its application in Water Resources

“Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) combines a class of psychological measurement models and scaling procedures which can be applied to the evaluation of alternatives which have multiple values relevant attributes.” Von Winterfeldt and Fischer (1975) . Some example applications of MAUT in Water Resource Management? Feeny, David, William Furlong, George W. Torrance, Charles H. Goldsmith, Zenglong Zhu, Sonja DePauw, Margaret Denton, and Michael Boyle. "Multiattribute and single-attribute utility functions for the health utilities index mark 3 system." Medical care 40, no. 2 (2002): 113-128. Zheng, Yong, and David Xuejun Wang. "Hybrid Multi-Criteria Preference Ranking by Subsorting." arXiv preprint arXiv:2306.11233 (2023). @data_hydrology , @Merchandise or @ @products_sustainability Add to Listy /